Nordisk familjebok. Familjen Bernadotte.
The Bernadotte family. A family chronicle.
Skogs Boktryckeri Trelleborg. Store norske leksikon. Soylent Communications. Gedruckt in der Berlingschen Officin. Retrieved 31 March Retrieved House of Bernadotte. Oscar I of Sweden and Norway.
FROM ORDER TO CHAOS: THE PRIZE COMPETITION IN HONOUR OF KING OSCAR II | IML
Oscar II of Sweden and Norway. Gustaf V of Sweden. Gustaf VI Adolf of Sweden. Swedish princes. King Adolf Frederick . Monarchs of Norway. Christian Frederick. Monarchs of Sweden.
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Later Charles X learned the art of war under Lennart Torstenson , being present at the second Battle of Breitenfeld and at Jankowitz From to he frequented the Swedish court, supposedly as a prospective husband of his cousin the queen regnant, Christina of Sweden —89, reigned —54 , but her insurmountable objection to wedlock put an end to these anticipations, and to compensate her cousin for a broken half-promise she declared him her successor in , despite the opposition of the Privy Council headed by Axel Oxenstierna.
In he gained the appointment of commander of the Swedish forces in Germany. The conclusion of the treaties of Westphalia in October prevented him from winning the military laurels he is said to have desired, but as the Swedish plenipotentiary at the executive congress of Nuremberg , he had an opportunity to learn diplomacy, a science he is described as having quickly mastered.
As the recognized heir to the throne, his position on his return to Sweden was dangerous because of the growing discontent with the queen. Charles Gustav was crowned on 7 June , the day after his cousin Christina abdicated. The Riksdag which assembled at Stockholm in March , duly considered the two great pressing national questions: war, and the restitution of the alienated crown lands. Over three days a secret committee presided over by the King decided the war question: Charles X easily persuaded the delegates that a war against Poland appeared necessary and might prove very advantageous; but the consideration of the question of the subsidies due to the crown for military purposes was postponed to the following Riksdag.
By the time war was declared he had at his disposal 50, men and 50 warships. Thereupon the Swedes entered Warsaw without opposition and occupied the whole of Greater Poland. A great number of Polish nobles and their personal armies joined the Swedes, including the majority of the famous Winged Hussars.
This success elicited popular enthusiasm in Poland and gave rise to a nationalistic and religious rhetoric concerning the war and Charles X. He was depicted as tactless and his mercenaries barbaric. His refusal to legalize his position by summoning the Polish diet and his negotiations for the partition of the very state he affected to befriend, awoke a nationalistic spirit in the country. In the beginning of King John II Casimir returned from exile and the reorganised Polish army, increased in numbers.
By this time Charles had discovered that he could more readily defeat the Poles than conquer Poland. What is described as his chief object, the conquest of Prussia , remained unaccomplished, and a new Swedish adversary arose in the elector of Brandenburg , Frederick William I , alarmed by the ambition of the Swedish king.
In the meantime, the Russians signed a cease-fire with the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth Treaty of Vilno of and then pursued a campaign in Livonia and laid siege to Riga , the second largest city in the Swedish Realm. But on 21 June the Poles retook Warsaw, and four days later Charles was obliged to purchase the assistance of Frederick William I , by the treaty of Marienburg 23 June However, this feat of arms did not have the desired result for Charles, and when Frederick William compelled the Swedish king to open negotiations with the Poles, they refused the terms offered, the war resumed, and Charles concluded an offensive and defensive alliance with the elector of Brandenburg Treaty of Labiau , 20 November which stipulated that Frederick William and his heirs should henceforth possess the full sovereignty of East Prussia.
Labiau involved an essential modification of Charles's Baltic policy; but the alliance with the elector of Brandenburg had now become indispensable for him on almost any terms. The difficulties of Charles X in Poland are believed to have caused him to receive the tidings of the Danish-Norwegian declaration of war on 1 June with extreme satisfaction.
He had learnt from Torstensson that Denmark was most vulnerable if attacked from the south, and he attacked Denmark with a velocity which paralysed resistance. At the end of June , at the head of 8, seasoned veterans, he broke up from Bromberg Bydgoszcz south of Pomerania and reached the borders of Holstein on 18 July. The Danish army dispersed and the Swedes recovered the duchy of Bremen. In the early autumn Charles's troops swarmed over Jutland and firmly established themselves in the duchies.
The position of the Swedish king had now become critical. Still more ominously for the Swedes, the elector of Brandenburg, perceiving Sweden's difficulties, joined the league against Sweden and compelled Charles to accept the proffered mediation of Oliver Cromwell , Coenraad van Beuningen and Cardinal Mazarin.
HM The King's speeches
The negotiations foundered, however, upon the refusal of Sweden to refer the points in dispute to a general peace-congress, and Charles received encouragement from the capture of Fredriksodde, October, whereupon he began to make preparations for conveying his troops over to Funen in transport vessels. But soon another and cheaper expedient presented itself. In the middle of December began the great frost, which would prove so fatal to Denmark-Norway. In a few weeks the cold had grown so intense that the freezing of an arm of the sea with so rapid a current as the Small Belt became a conceivable possibility; and henceforth meteorological observations formed an essential part of the strategy of the Swedes.
His meteorologists estimated that in a couple of days the ice of the Little Belt would become firm enough to bear even the passage of a mail-clad host. The cold during the night of 29 January became most severe; and early in the morning of the 30th the Swedish king gave the order to start, the horsemen dismounting on the weaker spots of ice and cautiously leading their horses as far apart as possible, until they swung into their saddles again, closed their ranks and made a dash for the shore.
Swedish arms quickly overpowered the Danish troops lining the opposite coast and won the whole of Funen with the loss of only two companies of cavalry, which disappeared under the ice while fighting with the Danish left wing. She turned around to find him scrutinizing her with a pair of binoculars, from one metre away. Their marriage in has been credited with reviving the monarchy. Silvia has also had her struggles with the media since a newspaper discovered in that her father had joined the Nazi party, and taken over a factory from a Jewish businessman.
Silvia commissioned a Erik Norberg, a historian, to show that Sommerlath had in fact helped the Jewish businessman move funds from Germany. She is known for her tireless work for charity, fighting particularly for the rights of children through her charity the World Childhood Foundation.
The first-born child of the King and Queen in , Victoria is by far the most popular of the Swedish royals. She has perfected the delicate balance of being down-to-earth and accessible without losing her royal mystique. Victoria's decision to open up about the anorexia she suffered after stepping into the public eye aged 18 won her respect. Although she has inherited her father's dyslexia, she is more academically able, with a degree from Uppsala University and further studies at Yale.
She speaks English, French and German. She married her former personal trainer Daniel Westling in and the couple have two children, Estelle 7 and Oscar 3. His father was head of social services in Sandviken municipality and his mother worked for the Swedish post office. In public life, Daniel seeks to encourage young people to be follow in his entrepreneurial footsteps, visiting high schools around the country alongside people like Spotify co-founder Martin Lorentzen, with the Prince Daniel Fellowship and Entrepreneurship Program. The year-old Prince Carl Philip only spent a matter of months as heir the Swedish throne before Sweden moved to gender neutral succession.
He's since dropped down to fourth in succession. Thousands lined the streets in Stockholm to celebrate his marriage to Sofia Hellqvist, a former glamour model and reality TV star, in The couple's second child, Prince Gabriel, Duke of Dalarna, was born in Carl Philip is a keen sportsman, competing in sailing, running and cross-country skiing. Like his father, he is passionate about cars.
He is a licensed race car driver and has competed in the Porsche Carrera Cup Scandinavia. During the show she kissed 'Queen of Porn' Jenna Jameson. She had previously been crowned Miss Slitz for posing topless with a snake in the Swedish glamour magazine Slitz. By the time she became involved with Carl Philip, she had studied business and accounting in New York and in she co-founded Project Playground, a charity that works with street children in South Africa.
Since marrying Carl Philip she has maintained her charitable work, becoming heavily involved in Queen Silvia's World Childhood Foundation. She is a qualified yoga instructor and a pescatarian. At 35, Madeleine is the youngest of the three royal children, and perhaps the least active in public affairs. She is the patron of Min Stora Dag My Big Day , which helps children with life-threatening conditions fulfil their wishes.
Madeleine returned to Sweden in February , where the couple's second child Prince Nicolas was born in June the same year, but by then O'Neill had already moved to London to set up payment solutions company Wilton Payments. That autumn Madeleine moved to join him.